Insights Into Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genetic Recombination Based on 3 High-Density Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism and a Consensus Map Developed Independently With Common Parents
High-density linkage maps are vital to supporting the correct placement of scaffolds and gene sequences on chromosomes and fundamental to contemporary organismal research and scientific approaches to genetic improvement, especially in paleopolyploids with exceptionally complex genomes, eg, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., "2n = 52"). Three independently developed intraspecific upland mapping populations were analyzed to generate 3 high-density genetic linkage single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps and a consensus map using the CottonSNP63K array. The populations consisted of a previously reported F2, a recombinant inbred line (RIL), and reciprocal RIL population, from "Phytogen 72" and "Stoneville 474" cultivars. The cluster file provided 7417 genotyped SNP markers, resulting in 26 linkage groups corresponding to the 26 chromosomes (c) of the allotetraploid upland cotton (AD)1 arisen from the merging of 2 genomes ("A" Old World and "D" New World). Patterns of chromosome-specific recombination were largely consistent across mapping populations. The high-density genetic consensus map included 7244 SNP markers that spanned 3538 cM and comprised 3824 SNP bins, of which 1783 and 2041 were in the At and Dt subgenomes with 1825 and 1713 cM map lengths, respectively. Subgenome average distances were nearly identical, indicating that subgenomic differences in bin number arose due to the high numbers of SNPs on the Dt subgenome. Examination of expected recombination frequency or crossovers (COs) on the chromosomes within each population of the 2 subgenomes revealed that COs were also not affected by the SNPs or SNP bin number in these subgenomes. Comparative alignment analyses identified historical ancestral At-subgenomic translocations of c02 and c03, as well as of c04 and c05. The consensus map SNP sequences aligned with high congruency to the NBI assembly of Gossypium hirsutum. However, the genomic comparisons revealed evidence of additional unconfirmed possible duplications, inversions and translocations, and unbalance SNP sequence homology or SNP sequence/loci genomic dominance, or homeolog loci bias of the upland tetraploid At and Dt subgenomes. The alignments indicated that 364 SNP-associated previously unintegrated scaffolds can be placed in pseudochromosomes of the NBI G hirsutum assembly. This is the first intraspecific SNP genetic linkage consensus map assembled in G hirsutum with a core of reproducible mendelian SNP markers assayed on different populations and it provides further knowledge of chromosome arrangement of genic and nongenic SNPs. Together, the consensus map and RIL populations provide a synergistically useful platform for localizing and identifying agronomically important loci for improvement of the cotton crop.
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